TY - CHAP A1 - Zhuoya Wan A2 - Song Li ED1 - Maria del Mar Ortega-Villaizan ED2 - Veronica Chico Y1 - 2021-11-24 PY - 2021 T1 - Metabotropic Receptors 4 and the Immune Responses N2 - Infectious microbial agents such as viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites can cause pathological disorders and even death in organisms exposed to the environment. However, organisms have an immune system to control infection caused by pathogens. The immune system is divided into the innate and the adaptive immune systems. The innate immune system is the first mechanism to respond to infections, whereas the adaptive immune system is based on immune memory. This book provides an overview of antiviral and antibacterial immune responses in different immune-reactive organs and across different animal species, from higher to lower vertebrates. BT - Antimicrobial Immune Response SP - Ch. 5 UR - https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.100272 DO - 10.5772/intechopen.100272 SN - 978-1-83968-783-9 PB - IntechOpen CY - Rijeka Y2 - 2022-01-20 ER -