TY - CHAP A1 - Ziv Beckerman A2 - Edward P. Chen ED1 - Kaan Kirali Y1 - 2018-10-03 PY - 2018 T1 - Contemporary Surgical Options for the Aortic Root N2 - Heart valves are the basic functional structure of the heart to obtain, sustain, and maintain blood circulations in the body without energy loss, allowing blood regurgitation or obstructing blood flow. There are two basic designs of heart valves: actively protected via subvalvular apparatus (atrioventricular valves) and passively strengthened (ventriculoarterial valves). The embryologic and morphologic development of heart valves is the key stage to continue normofunctional structure and physiological behavior. Fetal anomalies, embryologic defects, or non-development pathologies may damage the structure of heart valves and cause functional deterioration at different grades. In this book, we have focused on specific pathologies, which require special knowledge and treatment modalities. BT - Structural Insufficiency Anomalies in Cardiac Valves SP - Ch. 6 UR - https://doi.org/10.5772/intechopen.75816 DO - 10.5772/intechopen.75816 SN - 978-1-78923-767-2 PB - IntechOpen CY - Rijeka Y2 - 2021-12-06 ER -