TY - CHAP A1 - Laura E. Crotty Alexander A2 - Shymaa Enany A3 - Elisa McEachern ED1 - Shymaa Enany ED2 - Laura E. Crotty Alexander Y1 - 2017-03-08 PY - 2017 T1 - Effects of Electronic (e)-Cigarette Vapor on Staphylococcal Virulence: Are E-Cigarettes Safer than Conventional Cigarettes? N2 - Staphylococcus was first recognized as a human pathogen in 1880 and was named for its grape cluster-like appearance. In 1884, Staphylococcus aureus was identified and named for its vibrant golden color, which was later found to be the result of golden toxin production. Here, experts examine in-depth patterns of S. aureus colonization and exposures in humans, mammals, and birds that have led to the development of various clinical diseases. The mode of transmission of S. aureus and different methods for its detection in different samples are defined. Conventional antibiotic options to treat this aggressive, multifaceted, and readily adaptable pathogen are becoming limited. Alternative, novel chemotherapeutics to target S. aureus are discussed in the pages within, including herbal medicines, bee products, and modes of delivery. BT - Frontiers in Staphylococcus aureus SP - Ch. 4 UR - https://doi.org/10.5772/66154 DO - 10.5772/66154 SN - 978-953-51-2982-0 PB - IntechOpen CY - Rijeka Y2 - 2021-09-18 ER -