TY - CHAP A1 - W.D. Eaton A2 - D. Shebitz A3 - K. Niemiera A4 - C. Looby ED1 - Mahamane Ali Y1 - 2012-04-27 PY - 2012 T1 - The Effects of the N-Fixing Tree Pentaclethra macroloba on the Above and Below Ground Communities Within a Primary Forest in the Northern Zone of Costa Rica N2 - The ecosystems present a great diversity worldwide and use various functionalities according to ecologic regions. In this new context of variability and climatic changes, these ecosystems undergo notable modifications amplified by domestic uses of which it was subjected to. Indeed the ecosystems render diverse services to humanity from their composition and structure but the tolerable levels are unknown. The preservation of these ecosystemic services needs a clear understanding of their complexity. The role of the research is not only to characterise the ecosystems but also to clearly define the tolerable usage levels. Their characterisation proves to be important not only for the local populations that use it but also for the conservation of biodiversity. Hence, the measurement, management and protection of ecosystems need innovative and diverse methods. For all these reasons, the aim of this book is to bring out a general view on the biogeochemical cycles, the ecological imprints, the mathematical models and theories applicable to many situations. BT - The Functioning of Ecosystems SP - Ch. 4 UR - https://doi.org/10.5772/37876 DO - 10.5772/37876 SN - PB - IntechOpen CY - Rijeka Y2 - 2020-09-29 ER -