TY - CHAP A1 - Gerard Ramstein ED1 - Wellington Pinheiro dos Santos Y1 - 2009-10-01 PY - 2009 T1 - Gravitational Singularities in Particle Swarms. Application to the Discovery of Gene Expression Patterns in DNA Microarrays. N2 - This book presents several recent advances on Evolutionary Computation, specially evolution-based optimization methods and hybrid algorithms for several applications, from optimization and learning to pattern recognition and bioinformatics. This book also presents new algorithms based on several analogies and metafores, where one of them is based on philosophy, specifically on the philosophy of praxis and dialectics. In this book it is also presented interesting applications on bioinformatics, specially the use of particle swarms to discover gene expression patterns in DNA microarrays. Therefore, this book features representative work on the field of evolutionary computation and applied sciences. The intended audience is graduate, undergraduate, researchers, and anyone who wishes to become familiar with the latest research work on this field. BT - Evolutionary Computation SP - Ch. 22 UR - https://doi.org/10.5772/9600 DO - 10.5772/9600 SN - PB - IntechOpen CY - Rijeka Y2 - 2019-02-16 ER -